Global Configuration

The Ambassador Module

If present, the Module defines system-wide configuration. This module can be applied to any Kubernetes service (the ambassador service itself is a common choice). You may very well not need this Module. To apply the Module to an Ambassador Service, it MUST be named 'ambassador', otherwise it will be ignored. To create multiple ambassador Modules in the same namespace, they should be put in the annotations of each separate Ambassador Service.

The defaults in the Module are:

apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
kind: Module
metadata:
name: ambassador
spec:
# Use ambassador_id only if you are using multiple ambassadors in the same cluster.
# For more information: ../../running#ambassador_id.
# ambassador_id: "<ambassador_id>"
config:
# Use the following table for config fields
IDDefinition                                                                                         Example
add_linkerd_headersShould we automatically add Linkerd l5d-dst-override headers?add_linkerd_headers: false
admin_portThe port where Ambassador's Envoy will listen for low-level admin requests. You should almost never need to change this.admin_port: 8001
ambassador_idUse only if you are using multiple ambassadors in the same cluster. Learn more.ambassador_id: "<ambassador_id>"
cluster_idle_timeout_msSet the default upstream-connection idle timeout. Default is 1 hour.cluster_idle_timeout_ms: 30000
default_label_domain and default_labelsSet a default domain and request labels to every request for use by rate limiting. For more on how to use these, see the Rate Limit reference.None
defaultsThe defaults element allows setting system-wide defaults that will be applied to various Ambassador resources. See using defaults for more information.None
diagnostics.enabledEnable or disable the Edge Policy Console and /ambassador/v0/diag/ endpoints. See below for more details.None
enable_grpc_http11_bridgeShould we enable the gRPC-http11 bridge?enable_grpc_http11_bridge: false
enable_grpc_webShould we enable the grpc-Web protocol?enable_grpc_web: false
enable_http10Should we enable http/1.0 protocol?enable_http10: false
enable_ipv4Should we do IPv4 DNS lookups when contacting services? Defaults to true, but can be overridden in a Mapping.enable_ipv4: true
enable_ipv6Should we do IPv6 DNS lookups when contacting services? Defaults to false, but can be overridden in a Mapping.enable_ipv6: false
envoy_log_formatDefines the envoy log line format. See this page for a complete list of operators.See this page for the standard log format.
envoy_log_pathDefines the path of log envoy will use. By default this is standard output.envoy_log_path: /dev/fd/1
envoy_log_typeDefines the type of log envoy will use, currently only support json or text.envoy_log_type: text
envoy_validation_timeoutDefines the timeout, in seconds, for validating a new Envoy configuration. The default is 10; a value of 0 disables Envoy configuration validation. Most installations will not need to use this setting.envoy_validation_timeout: 30
listener_idle_timeout_msControls how Envoy configures the tcp idle timeout on the http listener. Default is 1 hour.listener_idle_timeout_ms: 30000
lua_scriptsRun a custom lua script on every request. see below for more details.None
proper_caseShould we enable upper casing for response headers? For more information, see the Envoy docs.proper_case: false
regex_max_sizeThis field controls the RE2 "program size" which is a rough estimate of how complex a compiled regex is to evaluate. A regex that has a program size greater than the configured value will fail to compile.regex_max_size: 200
regex_typeSet which regular expression engine to use. See the "Regular Expressions" section below.regex_type: safe
server_nameBy default Envoy sets server_name response header to envoy. Override it with this variable.server_name: envoy
service_portIf present, service_port will be the port Ambassador listens on for microservice access. If not present, Ambassador will use 8443 if TLS is configured, 8080 otherwise.service_port: 8080
statsdConfigures Ambassador statistics. These values can be set in the Ambassador module or in an environment variable. For more information, see the Statistics reference.None
use_proxy_protoControls whether Envoy will honor the PROXY protocol on incoming requests.use_proxy_proto: false
use_remote_addressControls whether Envoy will trust the remote address of incoming connections or rely exclusively on the X-Forwarded-For header.use_remote_address: true
use_ambassador_namespace_for_service_resolutionControls whether Ambassador will resolve upstream services assuming they are in the same namespace as the element referring to them, e.g. a Mapping in namespace foo will look for its service in namespace foo. If true, Ambassador will resolve the upstream services assuming they are in the same namespace as Ambassador, unless the service explicitly mentions a different namespace.use_ambassador_namespace_for_service_resolution: false
x_forwarded_proto_redirectAmbassador lets through only the HTTP requests with X-FORWARDED-PROTO: https header set, and redirects all the other requests to HTTPS if this field is set to true. Note that use_remote_address must be set to false for this feature to work as expected.x_forwarded_proto_redirect: false
xff_num_trusted_hopsControls the how Envoy sets the trusted client IP address of a request. If you have a proxy in front of Ambassador, Envoy will set the trusted client IP to the address of that proxy. To preserve the orginal client IP address, setting x_num_trusted_hops: 1 will tell Envoy to use the client IP address in X-Forwarded-For. Please see the Envoy documentation for more information.xff_num_trusted_hops: 0
preserve_external_request_idControls whether to override the X-REQUEST-ID header or keep it as it is coming from incomming request. Note that preserve_external_request_id must be set to true for this feature to work. Default value will be false.preserve_external_request_id: false

Additional config Field Examples

The Ambassador Module can set global configurations for circuit-breaking, cors, keepalive, load-balancing, and retry policy. Setting any of these values in a Mapping will overwrite this behavior.

Circuit Breaking

circuit_breakers sets the global circuit breaking configuration that Ambassador will use for all mappings, unless overridden in a mapping. More information at the circuit breaking reference.

circuit_breakers
max_connections: 2048
...

Cross Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)

cors sets the default CORS configuration for all mappings in the cluster. See the CORS syntax.

cors:
origins: http://foo.example,http://bar.example
methods: POST, GET, OPTIONS
...

Keepalive

keepalive sets the global keepalive settings. Ambassador will use for all mappings unless overridden in a mapping. No default value is provided by Ambassador. More information at https://www.envoyproxy.io/docs/envoy/latest/api-v2/api/v2/core/address.proto#envoy-api-msg-core-tcpkeepalive.

keepalive:
time: 2
interval: 2
probes: 100
...

Load Balancer

load_balancer sets the global load balancing type and policy that Ambassador will use for all mappings unless overridden in a mapping. Defaults to round-robin with Kubernetes. More information at the load balancer reference.

load_balancer:
policy: round_robin/least_request/ring_hash/maglev
...

Retry Policy

retry_policy lets you add resilience to your services in case of request failures by performing automatic retries.

retry_policy:
retry_on: "5xx"
...

Linkerd Interoperability (add_linkerd_headers)

When using Linkerd, requests going to an upstream service need to include the l5d-dst-override header to ensure that Linkerd will route them correctly. Setting add_linkerd_headers does this automatically; see the Mapping documentation for more details.

Upstream Idle Timeout (cluster_idle_timeout_ms)

If set, cluster_idle_timeout_ms specifies the timeout (in milliseconds) after which an idle connection upstream is closed. If no cluster_idle_timeout_ms is specified, upstream connections will never be closed due to idling.

Defaults (defaults)

The defaults element is a dictionary of default values that will be applied to various Ambassador resources. See using defaults for more information.

Diagnostics (diagnostics)

  • Both the API Gateway and the Edge Stack provide low-level diagnostics at /ambassador/v0/diag/.
  • The Ambassador Edge Stack also provides the higher-level Edge Policy Console at /edge_stack/admin/.

By default, both services are enabled:

diagnostics:
enabled: true

Setting diagnostics.enabled to false will disable the routes for both services (they will remain accessible from inside the Ambassador pod on port 8877):

diagnostics:
enabled: false

When configured this way, diagnostics are only available from inside the Ambassador pod(s) via localhost networking. You can use Kubernetes port forwarding to set up remote access temporarily:

kubectl port-forward -n ambassador deploy/ambassador 8877

If you want to expose the diagnostics page but control them via Host based routing, you can set diagnostics.enabled to false and create mappings as specified in the FAQ.

gRPC HTTP/1.1 bridge (enable_grpc_http11_bridge)

Ambassador supports bridging HTTP/1.1 clients to backend gRPC servers. When an HTTP/1.1 connection is opened and the request content type is application/grpc, Ambassador will buffer the response and translate into gRPC requests. For more details on the translation process, see the Envoy gRPC HTTP/1.1 bridge documentation. This setting can be enabled by setting enable_grpc_http11_bridge: true.

gRPC-Web (enable_grpc_web)

gRPC is a binary HTTP/2-based protocol. While this allows high performance, it is problematic for any programs that cannot speak raw HTTP/2 (such as JavaScript in a browser). gRPC-Web is a JSON and HTTP-based protocol that wraps around the plain gRPC to alleviate this problem and extend benefits of gRPC to the browser, at the cost of performance.

The gRPC-Web specification requires a server-side proxy to translate between gRPC-Web requests and gRPC backend services. Ambassador can serve as the service-side proxy for gRPC-Web when enable_grpc_web: true is set. Find more on the gRPC Web client GitHub.

HTTP/1.0 support (enable_http10)

Enable/disable the handling of incoming HTTP/1.0 and HTTP 0.9 requests.

enable_ivp4 and enable_ipv6

If both IPv4 and IPv6 are enabled, Ambassador Edge Stack will prefer IPv6. This can have strange effects if Ambassador Edge Stack receives AAAA records from a DNS lookup, but the underlying network of the pod doesn't actually support IPv6 traffic. For this reason, the default is IPv4 only.

A Mapping can override both enable_ipv4 and enable_ipv6, but if either is not stated explicitly in a Mapping, the values here are used. Most Ambassador Edge Stack installations will probably be able to avoid overriding these settings in Mappings.

Envoy Access Logs (envoy_log_format, envoy_log_path, and envoy_log_type)

Ambassador allows for two types of logging output, json and text (envoy_log_type). These logs can be formatted using Envoy operators to display specific information about an incoming request. For example, a log of type json could use the following to show only the protocol and duration of a request:

envoy_log_format:
{
"protocol": "%PROTOCOL%",
"duration": "%DURATION%"
}

Additionally, a file path can be specified to output logs instead of standard out using envoy_log_path.

Listener Idle Timeout (listener_idle_timeout_ms)

Controls how Envoy configures the tcp idle timeout on the http listener. Default is no timeout (TCP connection may remain idle indefinitely). This is useful if you have proxies and/or firewalls in front of Ambassador and need to control how Ambassador initiates closing an idle TCP connection. Please see the Envoy documentation for more information.

Readiness and Liveness probes (readiness_probe and liveness_probe)

The default liveness and readiness probes map /ambassador/v0/check_alive and ambassador/v0/check_ready internally to check Envoy itself. If you'd like to, you can change these to route requests to some other service. For example, to have the readiness probe map to the quote application's health check, you could do

readiness_probe:
enabled: true
service: quote
rewrite: /backend/health

The liveness and readiness probes both support prefix, rewrite, and service, with the same meanings as for mappings. Additionally, the enabled boolean may be set to false to disable API support for the probe. It will, however, remain accessible on port 8877.

Lua Scripts (lua_scripts)

Ambassador Edge Stack supports the ability to inline Lua scripts that get run on every request. This is useful for simple use cases that mutate requests or responses, e.g., add a custom header. Here is a sample:

lua_scripts: |
function envoy_on_response(response_handle)
response_handle:headers():add("Lua-Scripts-Enabled", "Processed")
end

For more details on the Lua API, see the Envoy Lua filter documentation.

Some caveats around the embedded scripts:

  • They run in-process, so any bugs in your Lua script can break every request
  • They're inlined in the Ambassador Edge Stack YAML, so you likely won't want to write complex logic in here
  • They're run on every request/response to every URL

If you need more flexible and configurable options, Ambassador Edge Stack supports a pluggable Filter system.

Header Case (proper_case)

To enable upper casing of response headers by proper casing words: the first character and any character following a special character will be capitalized if it’s an alpha character. For example, “content-type” becomes “Content-Type”. Please see the Envoy documentation

Regular Expressions (regex_type)

If regex_type is unset (the default), or is set to any value other than unsafe, Ambassador Edge Stack will use the RE2 regular expression engine. This engine is designed to support most regular expressions, but keep bounds on execution time. RE2 is the recommended regular expression engine.

If regex_type is set to unsafe, Ambassador Edge Stack will use the modified ECMAScript regular expression engine. This is not recommended since the modified ECMAScript engine can consume unbounded CPU in some cases (mostly relating to backreferences and lookahead); it is provided for backward compatibility if necessary.

Overriding Default Ports (service_port)

By default, Ambassador Edge Stack listens for HTTP or HTTPS traffic on ports 8080 or 8443 respectively. This value can be overridden by setting the service_port in the Ambassador Module:

service_port: 4567

This will configure Ambassador Edge Stack to listen for traffic on port 4567 instead of 8080.

Allow Proxy Protocol (use_proxy_proto)

Many load balancers can use the PROXY protocol to convey information about the connection they are proxying. In order to support this in Ambassador Edge Stack, you'll need to set use_proxy_protocol to true; this is not the default since the PROXY protocol is not compatible with HTTP.

Trust Downstream Client IP (use_remote_address)

In Ambassador 0.50 and later, the default value for use_remote_address is set to true. When set to true, Ambassador Edge Stack will append to the X-Forwarded-For header its IP address so upstream clients of Ambassador Edge Stack can get the full set of IP addresses that have propagated a request. You may also need to set externalTrafficPolicy: Local on your LoadBalancer as well to propagate the original source IP address. See the Envoy documentation and the Kubernetes documentation for more details.

Note well that if you need to use x_forwarded_proto_redirect, you must set use_remote_address to false. Otherwise, unexpected behaviour can occur.

X-Forwarded-For Trusted Hops (xff_num_trusted_hops)

The value of xff_num_trusted_hops indicates the number of trusted proxies in front of Ambassador Edge Stack. The default setting is 0 which tells Envoy to use the immediate downstream connection's IP address as the trusted client address. The trusted client address is used to populate the remote_address field used for rate limiting and can affect which IP address Envoy will set as X-Envoy-External-Address.

xff_num_trusted_hops behavior is determined by the value of use_remote_address (which defaults to true in Ambassador Edge Stack).

  • If use_remote_address is false and xff_num_trusted_hops is set to a value N that is greater than zero, the trusted client address is the (N+1)th address from the right end of XFF. (If the XFF contains fewer than N+1 addresses, Envoy falls back to using the immediate downstream connection’s source address as a trusted client address.)

  • If use_remote_address is true and xff_num_trusted_hops is set to a value N that is greater than zero, the trusted client address is the Nth address from the right end of XFF. (If the XFF contains fewer than N addresses, Envoy falls back to using the immediate downstream connection’s source address as a trusted client address.)

Refer to Envoy's documentation for some detailed examples of this interaction.

NOTE: This value is not dynamically configurable in Envoy. A restart is required changing the value of xff_num_trusted_hops for Envoy to respect the change.

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