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Transport Layer Security (TLS)

Ambassador Edge Stack's robust TLS support exposes configuration options for different TLS use cases including:

Host

As explained in the Host reference, a Host represents a domain in Ambassador Edge Stack and defines how TLS is managed on that domain. In Ambassador Edge Stack, the simplest configuration of a Host will enable TLS with a self-signed certificate and redirect cleartext traffic to HTTPS.

WARNING - Host Configuration: The requestPolicy property of the Host CRD is applied globally within an Ambassador Edge Stack instance, even if it is applied to only one Host when multiple Hosts are configured. Different requestPolicy behaviors cannot be applied to different Hosts. It is recommended to apply an identical requestPolicy to all Hosts instead of assuming the behavior, to create a more human readable config.

If a requestPolicy is not defined for a Host, it's assumed to be Redirect, so even if a Host does not specify it, the default requestPolicy of Redirect will be applied to all Hosts in that Ambassador Edge Stack instance. If the behavior expected out of Ambassador Edge Stack is anything other than Redirect, it must be explicitly enumerated in all Host resources.

Unexpected behavior can occur when multiple Host resources are not using the same value for requestPolicy.

The insecure-action can be one of:

  • Redirect (the default): redirect to HTTPS
  • Route: go ahead and route as normal; this will allow handling HTTP requests normally
  • Reject: reject the request with a 400 response

The example below does not define a requestPolicy; however, this is something to keep in mind as you begin using the Host CRD in Ambassador Edge Stack.

For more information, please refer to the Host documentation.

Automatic TLS with ACME

With Ambassador Edge Stack, the Host can be configured to completely manage TLS by requesting a certificate from a Certificate Authority using the ACME HTTP-01 challenge.

After creating a DNS record, configuring Ambassador Edge Stack to get a certificate from the default CA Let's Encrypt is as simple as providing a hostname and your email for the certificate:

yaml
---
apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
kind: Host
metadata:
name: example-host
spec:
hostname: host.example.com
acmeProvider:
authority: https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory # Optional: The CA you want to get your certificate from. Defaults to Let's Encrypt
email: julian@example.com

Ambassador Edge Stack will now request a certificate from the CA and store it in a secret in the same namespace as the Host.

Bring your own certificate

For both Ambassador Edge Stack and Emissary-ingress, the Host can read a certificate from a Kubernetes secret and use that certificate to terminate TLS on a domain.

The following will configure Ambassador Edge Stack to grab a certificate from a secret named host-secret and use that secret for terminating TLS on the host.example.com domain:

yaml
---
apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
kind: Host
metadata:
name: example-host
spec:
hostname: host.example.com
acmeProvider:
authority: none
tlsSecret:
name: host-secret

Ambassador Edge Stack will now use the certificate in host-secret to terminate TLS.

Advanced TLS Configuration with the Host

You can specify TLS configuration directly in the Host via the tls field. This is the recommended method for more advanced TLS Configuration.

For example, to enforce a minimum TLS version on the Host, the configuration will look like this:

yaml
---
apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
kind: Host
metadata:
name: example-host
spec:
hostname: host.example.com
acmeProvider:
authority: none
tlsSecret:
name: min-secret
tls:
min_tls_version: v1.2

The following fields are accepted in the tls field:

yaml
tls:
cert_chain_file: # <type: string>
private_key_file: # <type: string>
ca_secret: # <type: string>
cacert_chain_file: # <type: string>
alpn_protocols: # <type: string>
cert_required: # <type: bool>
min_tls_version: # <type: string>
max_tls_version: # <type: string>
cipher_suites: # <type: array of strings>
ecdh_curves: # <type: array of strings>
redirect_cleartext_from: # <type: int32>
sni: # <type: string>

Host and TLSContext

The Host will configure most TLS termination settings in Ambassador Edge Stack.

If you require TLS configuration that is not available via the above tls settings in a Host, you can create a TLSContext and associate it with a Host with either of the following two methods.

Note: It is invalid to configure both spec.tls and spec.tlsContext.name on a Host. It is recommended to configure the tls setting in a Host without creating any TLSContext objects unless necessary. If you need to link a TLSContext to a Host make sure you are not also configuring the tls settings in that Host.

Create a TLSContext with the name {{HOST}}-context

You can create a TLSContext with the name {{NAME_OF_HOST}}-context, hosts set to the same hostname, and secret set to the same tlsSecret.

For example, to enforce a minimum TLS version on the Host above, create a TLSContext named example-host-context with the following configuration:

yaml
---
apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
kind: TLSContext
metadata:
name: example-host-context
spec:
hosts:
- host.example.com
secret: host-secret
min_tls_version: v1.2

Full reference for all options available to the TLSContext can be found below.

You can create a new TLSContext with the desired configuration and link it to the Host via the tlsContext field.

For example, to enforce a minimum TLS version on the Host above, create a TLSContext with any name with the following configuration:

yaml
---
apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
kind: TLSContext
metadata:
name: min-tls-context
spec:
secret: min-secret
min_tls_version: v1.2

and link it to the Host via the tlsContext field as shown:

yaml
---
apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
kind: Host
metadata:
name: example-host
spec:
hostname: host.example.com
acmeProvider:
authority: none
tlsSecret:
name: min-secret
tlsContext:
name: min-tls-context

Note: Any hosts or secret in the TLSContext must be the compatible with the Host to which it is being linked.

See TLSContext below to read more on the description of these fields.

TLSContext

The TLSContext is used to configure advanced TLS options in Ambassador Edge Stack. Remember, a TLSContext should always be paired with a Host.

A full schema of the TLSContext can be found below with descriptions of the different configuration options.

yaml
---
apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
kind: TLSContext
metadata:
name: example-host-context
spec:
# 'hosts' defines the hosts for which this TLSContext is relevant.
# It ties into SNI. A TLSContext without "hosts" is useful only for
# originating TLS.
# type: array of strings
#
# hosts: []
# 'sni' defines the SNI string to use on originated connections.
# type: string
#
# sni: None
# 'secret' defines a Kubernetes Secret that contains the TLS certificate we
# use for origination or termination. If not specified, Ambassador Edge Stack will look
# at the value of cert_chain_file and private_key_file.
# type: string
#
# secret: None
# 'ca_secret' defines a Kubernetes Secret that contains the TLS certificate we
# use for verifying incoming TLS client certificates.
# type: string
#
# ca_secret: None
# Tells Ambassador Edge Stack whether to interpret a "." in the secret name as a "." or
# a namespace identifier.
# type: boolean
#
# secret_namespacing: true
# If you set 'redirect_cleartext_from' to a port number, HTTP traffic
# to that port will be redirected to HTTPS traffic. Make sure that the
# port number you specify matches the port on which Ambassador Edge Stack is
# listening!
# redirect_cleartext_from: 8080
# 'cert_required' can be set to true to _require_ TLS client certificate
# authentication.
# type: boolean
#
# cert_required: false
# 'alpn_protocols' is used to enable the TLS ALPN protocol. It is required
# if you want to do GRPC over TLS; typically it will be set to "h2" for that
# case.
# type: string (comma-separated list)
#
# alpn_protocols: None
# 'min_tls_version' sets the minimum acceptable TLS version: v1.0, v1.1,
# v1.2, or v1.3. It defaults to v1.0.
# min_tls_version: v1.0
# 'max_tls_version' sets the maximum acceptable TLS version: v1.0, v1.1,
# v1.2, or v1.3. It defaults to v1.3.
# max_tls_version: v1.3
# Tells Ambassador Edge Stack to load TLS certificates from a file in its container.
# type: string
#
# cert_chain_file: None
# private_key_file: None
# cacert_chain_file: None

ALPN protocols

The alpn_protocols setting configures the TLS ALPN protocol. To use gRPC over TLS, set alpn_protocols: h2. If you need to support HTTP/2 upgrade from HTTP/1, set alpn_protocols: h2,http/1.1 in the configuration.

HTTP/2 support

The alpn_protocols setting is also required for HTTP/2 support.

yaml
apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
kind: TLSContext
metadata:
name: tls
spec:
secret: ambassador-certs
hosts: ["*"]
alpn_protocols: h2[, http/1.1]

Without setting alpn_protocols as shown above, HTTP2 will not be available via negotiation and will have to be explicitly requested by the client.

If you leave off http/1.1, only HTTP2 connections will be supported.

TLS parameters

The min_tls_version setting configures the minimum TLS protocol version that Ambassador Edge Stack will use to establish a secure connection. When a client using a lower version attempts to connect to the server, the handshake will result in the following error: tls: protocol version not supported.

The max_tls_version setting configures the maximum TLS protocol version that Ambassador Edge Stack will use to establish a secure connection. When a client using a higher version attempts to connect to the server, the handshake will result in the following error: tls: server selected unsupported protocol version.

The cipher_suites setting configures the supported ciphers found below using the configuration parameters for BoringSSL when negotiating a TLS 1.0-1.2 connection. This setting has no effect when negotiating a TLS 1.3 connection. When a client does not support a matching cipher a handshake error will result.

The ecdh_curves setting configures the supported ECDH curves when negotiating a TLS connection. When a client does not support a matching ECDH a handshake error will result.

shell
- AES128-SHA
- AES256-SHA
- AES128-GCM-SHA256
- AES256-GCM-SHA384
- ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA
- ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
- ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
- ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
- ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305
- ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA
- ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA
- ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
- ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
- ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305
- ECDHE-PSK-AES128-CBC-SHA
- ECDHE-PSK-AES256-CBC-SHA
- ECDHE-PSK-CHACHA20-POLY1305
- PSK-AES128-CBC-SHA
- PSK-AES256-CBC-SHA
- DES-CBC3-SHA
yaml
---
apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
kind: TLSContext
metadata:
name: tls
spec:
hosts: ["*"]
secret: ambassador-certs
min_tls_version: v1.0
max_tls_version: v1.3
cipher_suites:
- "[ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256|ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305]"
- "[ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256|ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305]"
ecdh_curves:
- X25519
- P-256

TLS Module (Deprecated)

The TLS Module is deprecated. TLSContext should be used when using Ambassador Edge Stack version 0.50.0 and above.

For users of Ambassador Edge Stack, see the Host CRD reference for more information.

yaml
---
apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
kind: Module
metadata:
name: tls
spec:
config:
# The 'server' block configures TLS termination. 'enabled' is the only
# required element.
server:
# If 'enabled' is not True, TLS termination will not happen.
enabled: True
# If you set 'redirect_cleartext_from' to a port number, HTTP traffic
# to that port will be redirected to HTTPS traffic. Make sure that the
# port number you specify matches the port on which Ambassador Edge Stack is
# listening!
# redirect_cleartext_from: 8080
# These are optional. They should not be present unless you are using
# a custom Docker build to install certificates onto the container
# filesystem, in which case YOU WILL STILL NEED TO SET enabled: True
# above.
#
# cert_chain_file: /etc/certs/tls.crt # remember to set enabled!
# private_key_file: /etc/certs/tls.key # remember to set enabled!
# Enable TLS ALPN protocol, typically HTTP2 to negotiate it with
# HTTP2 clients over TLS.
# This must be set to be able to use grpc over TLS.
# alpn_protocols: h2
# The 'client' block configures TLS client-certificate authentication.
# 'enabled' is the only required element.
client:
# If 'enabled' is not True, TLS client-certificate authentication will
# not happen.
enabled: False
# If 'cert_required' is True, TLS client certificates will be required
# for every connection.
# cert_required: False
# This is optional. It should not be present unless you are using
# a custom Docker build to install certificates onto the container
# filesystem, in which case YOU WILL STILL NEED TO SET enabled: True
# above.
#
# cacert_chain_file: /etc/cacert/tls.crt # remember to set enabled!