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Advanced Mapping configuration

Ambassador Edge Stack is designed so that the author of a given Kubernetes service can easily and flexibly configure how traffic gets routed to the service. The core abstraction used to support service authors is a mapping, which maps a target backend service to a given host or prefix. For Layer 7 protocols such as HTTP, gRPC, or WebSockets, the Mapping resource is used. For TCP, the TCPMapping resource is used.

Ambassador Edge Stack must have one or more mappings defined to provide access to any services at all. The name of the mapping must be unique.

System-wide defaults for Mappings

Certain aspects of mappings can be set system-wide using the defaults element of the ambassador Module: see using defaults for more information. The Mapping element will look first in the httpmapping default class.

Mapping evaluation order

Ambassador Edge Stack sorts mappings such that those that are more highly constrained are evaluated before those less highly constrained. The prefix length, the request method, constraint headers, and query parameters are all taken into account.

If absolutely necessary, you can manually set a precedence on the mapping (see below). In general, you should not need to use this feature unless you're using the regex_headers or host_regex matching features. If there's any question about how Ambassador Edge Stack is ordering rules, the diagnostic service is a good first place to look: the order in which mappings appear in the diagnostic service is the order in which they are evaluated.

Optional fallback Mapping

Ambassador Edge Stack will respond with a 404 Not Found to any request for which no mapping exists. If desired, you can define a fallback "catch-all" mapping so all unmatched requests will be sent to an upstream service.

For example, defining a mapping with only a / prefix will catch all requests previously unhandled and forward them to an external service:

Using precedence

Ambassador Edge Stack sorts mappings such that those that are more highly constrained are evaluated before those less highly constrained. The prefix length, the request method, and the constraint headers are all taken into account. These mechanisms, however, may not be sufficient to guarantee the correct ordering when regular expressions or highly complex constraints are in play.

For those situations, a Mapping can explicitly specify the precedence. A Mapping with no precedence is assumed to have a precedence of 0; the higher the precedence value, the earlier the Mapping is attempted.

If multiple Mappings have the same precedence, Ambassador Edge Stack's normal sorting determines the ordering within the precedence; however, there is no way that Ambassador Edge Stack can ever sort a Mapping with a lower precedence ahead of one at a higher precedence.

Using tls

To originate TLS, use a service with an https:// prefix. By itself, this will cause Ambassador Edge Stack to originate TLS without presenting a client certificate to the upstream service:

If you do need to supply a client certificate, you will also need to set tls to the name of a defined TLS context. The client certificate given in that context will be presented to the upstream service.

(If tls is present, Ambassador Edge Stack will originate TLS even if the service does not have an https:// prefix.)

Using cluster_tag

If the cluster_tag attribute is present, its value will be prepended to cluster names generated from the Mapping. This provides a simple mechanism for customizing the cluster name when working with metrics.

Using dns_type

If the dns_type attribute is present, its value will determine how the DNS is used when locating the upstream service. Valid values are:

  • strict_dns (the default): The DNS result is assumed to define the exact membership of the cluster. For example, if DNS returns three IP addresses, the cluster is assumed to have three distinct upstream hosts. If a successful DNS query returns no hosts, the cluster is assumed to be empty. strict_dns makes sense for situations like a Kubernetes service, where DNS resolution is fast and returns a relatively small number of IP addresses.

  • logical_dns: Instead of assuming that the DNS result defines the full membership of the cluster, every new connection simply uses the first IP address returned by DNS. logical_dns makes sense for a service with a large number of IP addresses using round-robin DNS for upstream load balancing: typically each DNS query returns a different first result, and it is not necessarily possible to know the full membership of the cluster. With logical_dns, no attempt is made to garbage-collect connections: they will stay open until the upstream closes them.

If dns_type is not given, strict_dns is the default, as this is the most conservative choice. When interacting with large web services with many IP addresses, switching to logical_dns may be a better choice. For more on the different types of DNS, see the strict_dns Envoy documentation or the logical_dns Envoy documentation.

Namespaces and Mappings

If AMBASSADOR_NAMESPACE is correctly set, Ambassador Edge Stack can map to services in other namespaces by taking advantage of Kubernetes DNS:

  • service: servicename will route to a service in the same namespace as Ambassador Edge Stack, and
  • service: servicename.namespace will route to a service in a different namespace.

Linkerd interoperability (add_linkerd_headers)

When using Linkerd, requests going to an upstream service need to include the l5d-dst-override header to ensure that Linkerd will route them correctly. Setting add_linkerd_headers does this automatically, based on the service attribute in the Mapping.

If add_linkerd_headers is not specified for a given Mapping, the default is taken from the ambassadorModule. The overall default is false: you must explicitly enable add_linkerd_headers for Ambassador Edge Stack to add the header for you (although you can always add it yourself with add_request_headers, of course).

"Upgrading" to non-HTTP protocols (allow_upgrade)

HTTP has a mechanism where the client can say Connection: upgrade / Upgrade: PROTOCOL to switch ("upgrade") from the current HTTP version to a different one, or even a different protocol entirely. Ambassador Edge Stack itself understands and can handle the different HTTP versions, but for other protocols you need to tell Ambassador Edge Stack to get out of the way, and let the client speak that protocol directly with your upstream service. You can do this by setting the allow_upgrade field to a case-insensitive list of protocol names Ambassador Edge Stack will allow switching to from HTTP. After the upgrade, Ambassador Edge Stack does not interpret the traffic, and behaves similarly to how it does for TCPMappings.

This "upgrade" mechanism is a useful way of adding HTTP-based authentication and access control to another protocol that might not support authentication; for this reason the designers of the WebSocket protocol made this "upgrade" mechanism the only way of initiating a WebSocket connection. In a Mapping for an upstream service that supports WebSockets, you would write

The Kubernetes apiserver itself uses this "upgrade" mechanism to perform HTTP authentication before switching to SPDY for endpoint used by kubectl exec; if you wanted to use Ambassador Edge Stack to expose the Kubernetes apiserver such that kubectl exec functions, you would write

There is a deprecated setting use_websocket; setting use_websocket: true is equivalent to setting allow_upgrade: ["websocket"].

DNS configuration for Mappings

respect_dns_ttl can be set to true to force the DNS refresh rate for this Mapping to be set to the record’s TTL obtained from DNS resolution.

  • Allowed values: true or false
  • Default: false

dns_type can be used to configure the service discovery type between Strict DNS and Logical DNS. You can

  • Allowed values:
    • strict_dns: Ambassador will continuously and asynchronously resolve the specified DNS targets.
    • logical_dns: Similar to strict_dns, but only uses the first IP address returned when a new connection needs to be initiated and Connections are never drained. More optimal for large scale web services that must be accessed via DNS.
  • Default: strict_dns

For more information on the differences between dns types, see the Envoy documentation for service discovery.

Note: When the endpoint resolver is used in a Mapping, dns_type will be ignored in favor of the endpoint resolver's service discovery.