Kubernetes SSO with OIDC and Keycloak

Developers use kubectl to access Kubernetes clusters. By default kubectl uses a certificate to authenticate to the Kubernetes API. This means that when multiple developers need to access a cluster, the certificate needs to be shared. Sharing the credentials to access a Kubernetes cluster presents a significant security problem. Compromise of the certificate is very easy and the consequences can be catastrophic.

In this tutorial, we walk through how to set up your Kubernetes cluster to add Single Sign-On support for kubectl using OpenID Connect (OIDC) and Keycloak. Instead of using a shared certificate, users will be able to use their own personal credentials to use kubectl with kubelogin.

Prerequisites

This tutorial relies on Ambassador Edge Stack to manage access to your Kubernetes cluster, and uses Keycloak as your identity provider. To get started:

Note This guide was designed and validated using an Azure AKS Cluster. It's possible that this procedure will work with other cloud providers, but there is a lot of variance in the Authentication mechanisms for the Kubernetes API. See the troubleshooting note at the bottom for more info.

  • Azure AKS Cluster here
  • Install Edge Stack here
  • Deploy Keycloak on Kubernetes here

Cluster Setup

In this section, we'll configure your Kubernetes cluster for single-sign on.

1. Authenticate Ambassador with Kubernetes API

  1. Delete the openapi mapping from the Ambassador namespace kubectl delete -n ambassador ambassador-devportal-api. (this mapping can conflict with kubectl commands)

  2. Create a new private key using openssl genrsa -out aes-key.pem 4096.

  3. Create a file aes-csr.cnf and paste the following config.

    [ req ]
    default_bits = 2048
    prompt = no
    default_md = sha256
    distinguished_name = dn
    [ dn ]
    CN = ambassador-kubeapi # Required
    [ v3_ext ]
    authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer:always
    basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
    keyUsage=keyEncipherment,dataEncipherment
    extendedKeyUsage=serverAuth,clientAuth
  4. Create a certificate signing request with the config file we just created. openssl req -config ./aes-csr.cnf -new -key aes-key.pem -nodes -out aes-csr.csr.

  5. Create and apply the following YAML for a CertificateSigningRequest. Replace {{BASE64_CSR}} with the value from cat aes-csr.csr | base64. Note that this is aes-csr.csr, and not aes-csr.cnf.

    apiVersion: certificates.k8s.io/v1beta1
    kind: CertificateSigningRequest
    metadata:
    name: aes-csr
    spec:
    groups:
    - system:authenticated
    request: {{BASE64_CSR}} # Base64 encoded aes-csr.csr
    usages:
    - digital signature
    - key encipherment
    - server auth
    - client auth
  6. Check csr was created: kubectl get csr (it will be in pending state). After confirmation, run kubectl certificate approve aes-csr. You can check kubectl get csr again to see that it's in the Approved, Issued state.

  7. Get the resulting certificate and put it into a pem file. kubectl get csr aes-csr -o jsonpath='{.status.certificate}' | base64 -d > aes-cert.pem.

  8. Create a TLS Secret using our private key and public certificate. kubectl create secret tls -n ambassador aes-kubeapi --cert ./aes-cert.pem --key ./aes-key.pem

  9. Create a Mapping and TLSContext for the Kube API.

    ---
    apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
    kind: TLSContext
    metadata:
    name: aes-kubeapi-context
    namespace: ambassador
    spec:
    hosts:
    - "*"
    secret: aes-kubeapi
    ---
    apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
    kind: Mapping
    metadata:
    name: aes-kubeapi-mapping
    namespace: ambassador
    spec:
    prefix: /
    allow_upgrade:
    - spdy/3.1
    service: https://kubernetes.default.svc
    timeout_ms: 0
    tls: aes-kubeapi-context
  10. Create RBAC for the "aes-kubeapi" user by applying the following YAML.

    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRole
    metadata:
    name: aes-impersonator-role
    rules:
    - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["users", "groups", "serviceaccounts"]
    verbs: ["impersonate"]
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRoleBinding
    metadata:
    name: aes-impersonator-rolebinding
    subjects:
    - apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
    kind: User
    name: aes-kubeapi
    roleRef:
    apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
    kind: ClusterRole
    name: aes-impersonator-role

As a quick check, you should be able to curl https://<ambassador-domain>/api and get a response similar to the following:

{
"kind": "APIVersions",
"versions": [
"v1"
],
"serverAddressByClientCIDRs": [
{
"clientCIDR": "0.0.0.0/0",
"serverAddress": "\"<some-kubernetes-service-address>\":443"
}
]
}%

2. Set up Keycloak config

  1. Create a new Realm and Client (e.g. ambassador, ambassador)
  2. Make sure that http://localhost:8000 and http://localhost:18000 are valid Redirect URIs
  3. Set access type to confidential and Save
  4. Go to the Credentials tab and note down the secret
  5. Go to the user tab and create a user with the first name "john"

3. Create a ClusterRole and ClusterRoleBinding for the OIDC user "john"

  1. Add the following RBAC to create a user "john" that only allowed to perform kubectl get services in the cluster.

    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRoleBinding
    metadata:
    name: john-binding
    subjects:
    - kind: User
    name: john
    apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
    roleRef:
    apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
    kind: ClusterRole
    name: john-role
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: ClusterRole
    metadata:
    name: john-role
    rules:
    - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["services"]
    verbs: ["get", "list"]
  2. Test the API again with the following 2 curls: curl https://<ambassador-domain>/api/v1/namespaces/default/services?limit=500 -H "Impersonate-User: "john" and curl https://<ambassador-domain>/api/v1/namespaces/default/pods?limit=500 -H "Impersonate-User: "john". You will find that the first curl should succeeds and the second curl should fail with the following response.

{
"kind": "Status",
"apiVersion": "v1",
"metadata": {
},
"status": "Failure",
"message": "pods is forbidden: User \"john\" cannot list resource \"pods\" in API group \"\" in the namespace \"default\"",
"reason": "Forbidden",
"details": {
"kind": "pods"
},
"code": 403
}

4. Create a JWT filter to authenticate the user

  1. Create the following JWT Filter and FilterPolicy based on this template:

    ---
    apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
    kind: Filter
    metadata:
    name: "kubeapi-jwt-filter"
    namespace: "ambassador"
    spec:
    JWT:
    jwksURI: https://<keycloak-domain>/auth/realms/<my-realm>/protocol/openid-connect/certs # If the keycloak instance is internal, you may want to use the internal k8s endpoint (e.g. http://keycloak.keycloak) instead of figuring out how to exclude JWKS requests from the FilterPolicy
    injectRequestHeaders:
    - name: "Impersonate-User" # Impersonate-User is mandatory, you can also add an Impersonate-Groups if you want to do group-based RBAC
    value: "{{ .token.Claims.given_name }}" # This uses the first name we specified in the Keycloak user account
    ---
    apiVersion: getambassador.io/v2
    kind: FilterPolicy
    metadata:
    name: "kubeapi-filter-policy"
    namespace: "ambassador"
    spec:
    rules:
    - host: "*"
    path: "*"
    filters:
    - name: kubeapi-jwt-filter

Client set up

Now, we need to set up the client. Each user who needs to access the Kubernetes cluster will need to follow these steps.

1. Install kubelogin

  1. Install kubelogin. Kubelogin is a kubectl plugin that enables OpenID Connect login with kubectl.

  2. Edit your local Kubernetes config file (either ~/.kube/config, or your $KUBECONFIG file) to include the following, making sure to replace the templated values.

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Config
    clusters:
    - name: azure-ambassador
    cluster:
    server: https://<ambassador-domain>
    contexts:
    - name: azure-ambassador-kube-api
    context:
    cluster: azure-ambassador
    user: azure-ambassador
    users:
    - name: azure-ambassador
    user:
    exec:
    apiVersion: client.authentication.k8s.io/v1beta1
    command: kubectl
    args:
    - oidc-login
    - get-token
    - --oidc-issuer-url=https://<keycloak-domain>/auth/realms/<my-realm>
    - --oidc-client-id=<client-id>
    - --oidc-client-secret=<client-secret>
  3. Switch to the context set above (in the example it's azure-ambassador-kube-api).

  4. Run kubectl get svc. This should open a browser page to the Keycloak login. Type in the credentials for "john" and, on success, return to the terminal to see the kubectl response. Congratulations, you've set up Single Sign-On with Kubernetes!

  5. Now try running kubectl get pods, and notice we get an Error from server (Forbidden): pods is forbidden: User "john" cannot list resource "pods" in API group "" in the namespace "default". This is expected because we explicitly set up "john" to only have access to view Service resources, and not Pods.

7. Logging Out

  1. Delete the token cache with rm -r ~/.kube/cache/oidc-login
  2. You may also have to remove session cookies in your browser or do a remote logout in the keycloak admin page.

Troubleshooting

  1. Why isn't this process working in my <insert-cloud-provider-here> cluster? Authentication to the Kubernetes API is highly cluster specific. Many use x509 certificates, but as a notable exception, Amazon's Elastic Kubernetes Service, for example, uses an Authenticating Webhook that connects to their IAM solution for Authentication, and so is not compatible specifically with this guide.
  2. What if I want to use RBAC Groups? User impersonation allows you to specify a Group using the Impersonate-Group header. As such, if you wanted to use any kind of custom claims for the ID token, they can be mapped to the Impersonate-Group header. Note that you always have to use an Impersonate-Name header, even if you're relying solely on the Group for Authorization.
  3. I keep getting a 401 Failure, Unauthorized message, even for https://<ambassador-domain>/api. This likely means that there is either something wrong with the Certificate that was issued, or there's something wrong with your TLSContext or Mapping config. Ambassador must present the correct certificate to the Kubernetes API and the RBAC usernames and the CN of the certificate have to be consistent with one another.
  4. Do I have to use kubelogin? Technically no. Any method of obtaining an ID or Access token from an Identity Provider will work. You can then pass the token using --token <jwt-token> when running kubectl. kubelogin simply automates the process of getting the ID token and attaching it to a kubectl request.

Under the Hood

In this tutorial, we set up Ambassador Edge Stack to impersonate a user to access the Kubernetes API. Requests get sent to Edge Stack, which functions as an Authenticating Proxy. Edge Stack uses its integrated authentication mechanism to authenticate the external request's identity and sets the User and Group based on Claims recieved by the Filter.

The general flow of the kubectl command is as follows: On making an unauthenticated kubectl command, kubelogin does a browser open/redirect in order to do OIDC token negotiation. kubelogin obtains an OIDC Identity Token (notice this is not an access token) and sends it to Ambassador in an Authorization header. Ambassador validates the Identity Token and parses Claims from it to put into Impersonate-XXX headers. Ambassador then scrubs the Authorization header and replaces it with the Admin token we set up in step 1. Ambassador then forwards this request with the new Authorization and Impersonate headers to the KubeAPI to first Authenticate, and then Authorize based on Kubernetes RBAC.


Questions?

We’re here to help if you have questions.